7 lessons of relativity

so now i need the lessons to be taught on level 2.  these are basically how to invalidate classical physics, how to cheat on all the games played with classical physics so that the house wins.  basically, i’m trying to show how relativity invalidates newtonian physics.

so, all the games of skill can be won by the house by changing the gravitational constant, etc.  and statistics (while not a branch of relativity) can be used in card-counting and other forms of cheating.  so now i have to round up seven principles of relativity that will fit into carnival rides and arcade games.

Some predictions of general relativity differ significantly from those of classical physics, especially concerning the passage of time, the geometry of space, the motion of bodies in free fall, and the propagation of light. Examples of such differences include gravitational time dilation, gravitational lensing, the gravitational redshift of light, and the gravitational time delay.

it implies the existence of black holes

the result of transporting spacetime vectors that can denote a particle’s velocity (time-like vectors) will vary with the particle’s trajectory; mathematically speaking, the Newtonian connection is not integrable. From this, one can deduce that spacetime is curved.

there are no global inertial frames. Instead there are approximate inertial frames moving alongside freely falling particles.

processes close to a massive body run more slowly when compared with processes taking place farther away; this effect is known as gravitational time dilation.

processes close to a massive body run more slowly when compared with processes taking place farther away; this effect is known as gravitational time dilation.  Closely related to light deflection is the gravitational time delay (or Shapiro effect), the phenomenon that light signals take longer to move through a gravitational field than they would in the absence of that field.

and more

as a space engineer you have been given the task of creating an “artificial gravity field” in this space station so that Alice and her comrades can work in a normal gravity environment like on Earth. How will you do it? Simple: make the big tin can rotate on its axis! Just like in the notorious “spinning cylinder” amusement park ride in which you go round and round and the floor drops out from beneath you

The two facts are “time dilation” and “length contraction”, which led him to warped time and warped space, respectively.

and another

Einstein’s relativity does not replace Newton’s universal gravitation, it merely modifies and partially supercedes aspects which proved inconsistent with developments in electromagnetic theory.

and another

This perspective on the world also includes something else that is very important. It includes the idea that only the present exists, the past is gone and the future is not out there yet. Philosophers call this outlook presentism. But then along came Einstein with special relativity in 1905 and it gave scientists an idea that most of them still cannot accept called the blockworld (and sometimes called the block universe). Special relativity says there is no such thing as “now” (except in our minds) and that the past, present and future all have to be out there at once as a kind of solid block of everything that “just is”.

The blockworld model shows us the universe is a package deal. The universe had to pop up all at once. The past, present and future must all be there, the past, present and future must all have popped up at once. The universe is not something that began at the Big Bang and then evolved as the matter moved out from the explosion. As for the Big Bang itself you might say that the Big Bang at the “beginning” of space and time is just a tiny fraction of what was created, it is merely a sort of fireworks display that is “celebrating” all the creation from there out to infinity. So if you sat back and watched creation by this God-like being from the proper perspective what you would see is, first, nothing at all. Then instantly a whole universe would appear. You’d see everything in the universe across all of space and time. At the far left of the universe you could see the Big Bang. A little bit to the right of the Big Bang you would start to find stars and galaxies. A little bit farther to the right you would start to find planets. Say one of those planets is Earth-like and then at some point to the right you would find simple cells, a bit farther to the right you would find more complex living things and a bit farther to the right you would find people. But all these things came into existence at once, they did not develop one after the other.

Consider for instance an amusement park ride like the Haunted Mansion ride at Disneyworld. When you get on the ride at the beginning in what we could call the present, the rest of the ride is still out there in front of you “in the future”. Everything in the future exists as something just as real as the place where you are starting out in the present even though you can’t see it yet. As you move through the ride you only see one place at a time. You only see “the present”. You experience what you call “now”. But the future is still out there in front of you and it is still just as real as where you are in the present and even the past where you started the ride is just as real as the present or the future. When you finally reach the end of the ride all of the past is still there and it is just as real as the now that you are experiencing “now”. And the whole ride is completely unchanged, it is still a sort of frozen block of everything.

The same applies to reading a book. The whole story was prepared by the author in advance. The beginning, middle and end all exist at once. It is a frozen block that “just is”. As you read page by page your consciousness moves through the book and where you are reading now is “the present”. What you’ve already read is still there in “the past” and “the future” is still there ahead of you.

To briefly summarize the ideas so far, all these years people have been using the perspective of presentism. This perspective works pretty well for most things but modern physics has found the new, better blockworld perspective and this perspective explains things better.

In modern times many people have come to believe in the evolution of life by chance. In evolution by chance chemistry just naturally produced some organic compounds that by chance evolved into a living cell. Afterwards chance mutations in the DNA of the single living cell produced more complex living things. The blockworld kills this idea in a single stroke because there is no such thing as chance.

and another

The student activity sheets for use on the day of the visit feature self-explanatory notes and are designed so that students can complete the activities while queuing/moving around the Park. You may wish to suggest that students take pictures of the rides and the Park to enhance their studies.

Students will benefit from prior knowledge of:
•     the relationship between speed, distance and time.
•     the effect of forces on speed and the direction of objects.
•     the ways in which friction affects motion.
•     energy transfer and the Law of Conservation of Energy.
It is also helpful if students have previously learned to use formula triangles and have used line graphs.

Scientific thinking
–     Using scientific ideas and models to explain phenomena and developing them creatively to generate and test theories.
–     Critically analysing and evaluating evidence from observations and experiments.
•     Energy, electricity and forces
–     Energy can be transferred usefully, stored or dissipated, but cannot be created or destroyed.
–     Forces are interactions between objects and can affect their shape and motion.

Schemes of Work
•     Forces and their effects
•     Gravity and space
•     Speeding up

Energy, electricity and radiations
–     Energy transfers can be measured.

the idea i’m trying to express on level 2 is that all the things we know about classical mechanics change when we move to another system of physics.  and i’m talking about metaphorically.  i’m talking about inside a video game, when it’s all a matter of trickery to begin with.  just that on level 2 all the tricks of level 1 are exposed and a new system comes into play.

so while the roller coaster is a ride where you can change the forces – change the track – on level 2 you can bend forces, dilate time, use black holes to control the ride.  workers on level 2 operate the spinning ride where the floor drops out and you have artificial gravity, while the players on level 1 can only move around squashed against the wall and launch themselves into the gravity pit faster or slower, stuff like that.

***

now, about cheating on games, presumably using statistics as well as weighted balls.  this one’s about cheating in online games

SOME PUBLICLY KNOWN CHEATS
CHEATING BY COLLUSION
CHEATING BY ABUSING PROCEDURE OR POLICY
CHEATING RELATED WITH VIRTUAL ASSETS
CHEATING BY COMPROMISING PASSWORDS
CHEATING BY DENYING SERVICE FROM PEER PLAYERS
CHEATING DUE TO LACK OF SECRECY
CHEATING DUE TO LACK OF AUTHENTICATION
CHEATING RELATED WITH INTERNAL MISUSE
CHEATING BY SOCIAL ENGINEERING
CHEATING BY MODIFYING GAME SOFTWARE OR DATA
Object Correlation
Objects Exposure
CHEATING BY EXPLOITING BUG OR DESIGN FLAW

categories for online cheating:
1. Reflex Augmentation: Exploiting a computer program to replace human reaction to produce superior results
2. Authoritative Clients: Exploiting compromised clients to send modified commands to the other honest clients who will blindly accept them
3. Information Exposure: Exploiting access or visibility to hidden information by compromising client software
4. Compromised Servers : Modifying server configurations to get unfair advantages
5. Bugs and Design Loopholes: Exploiting bugs or design flaws in game software
6. Environmental Weaknesses: Exploiting particular hardware or operating conditions

ESP cheats try to provide the player with visual enhancements to better enable the player to correlate between two objects. One such ESP cheat is improved or new radar and map for a game. Many games run a full copy of the game on each client, i.e. the client knows where all the other objects are. When the objects are positioned a place the player is meant to see them, they are shown on the screen. A modification might add a minimap or similar on the screen showing where all the other objects are at any time, like it’s done for Counter Strike and Warcraft III [17,14].

Another variant of ESP is “glow” [17]. Glow ESP helps a player see  enemies better. Either the whole object is changed to a color that is light or “glowing”, or only the sides of the objects are “glowing”. This makes it easer to distinguish friend from foe or spot objects in dark areas.

The goal for these cheats is to show something to the player that he  shouldn’t be able to see. This can be done be removing objects or making it possible to see objects meant to be hidden behind other objects.

Removed objects

In some games certain groups of objects clouds the visibility of other objects – and they are meant to. In Counter Strike smoke grenades release clouds of smoke that are very opaque, making them hard to see
through. Cheats remove these clouds [17]. Warcraft III uses something called fog of war. This is visible as a layer over the terrain that only lets the player view the contour of the landscape below. Some cheats remove this, giving the player the opportunity to explore the whole map without moving objects around to remove the fog of war [14].

Transparent objects

This kind of cheat is often known as wall hack [17]. The following group of cheats are also known as wall hack, but this is probably the one most players think of when a wall hack is mentioned, i.e. the ability to see
through walls. Sometimes these cheats makes all walls in a map 50% transparent [17]. In other words, it is possible to make some group of objects more or less transparent, making objects behind them visible.

Changed object layers

This method aims at showing objects a player wants to see without modifying objects like walls. A cheater can put some objects that are located behind others in front of those hiding them, making them visible. A solution might be to put all objects of a certain kind in front of any other object. This might – like in Counter Strike [17] – be a player model, enabling a player to know where other players are located. This wall hack is more efficient than ‘transparent objects’ because the cheater now only sees what is important and not everything else behind the wall. Seeing everything can limit ones ability to navigate on the map.

Textual information

Text can be shown about an object to reveal details about it not visually easy to spot for humans [17]. This might be items a player is carrying or the players’ health or strength. It is possible to make the text visible on top of other objects, e.g. a player model. Further it’s possible to show the text on top of other objects, in effect creating a wall hack with only the text visible through walls. This has the effect that the player models are located where they should, but the cheater will get an early  warning when text is shown on a wall but no player model is visible, i.e. the player model is behind the wall.

Cheaters often find their targets easy prey because data can bee seen in clear text, either between the client and server or internally in the machine under the cheaters control. An approach to reduce this threat is encrypting important data kept in memory or sent between the client and server or between the game engine and a modification (Mod).

There are many encryption schemes useful for online games, like the Advanced Encryption Algorithm [28]. However, such cryptographic algorithms might be to resource consuming. Another solution that might be sufficient is using XOR for important values. That would make it more difficult to e.g. search for known values in memory e.g. for a paused game. Each new patch for a game could include a new XOR key to make a cheaters life more difficult.

Pritchard [1] suggest another kind of “encryption”, known as security through obscurity. By dynamically changing the command syntax, hackers will have more trouble finding the desired data in memory. Such solutions are not popular in the academic world, but from a practical  approach, everything that increase the pain of the attacker at a low cost for the defender has some clear advantages.

In order to beat the cheaters, some kind of disciplinary punishment is needed. If cheating doesn’t result in anything negative for the cheater, they will likely continue cheating. One such punishment is disabling the user account associated with the cheat. At the same time, those offended by the cheat should have some possibility of restoring e.g. something that was taken from them.

here’s the precis of the bible of cheating with statistics

  • The sample with a built-in bias : the origin of the statistics problems – the sample.
  • The well-chosen average: how not qualifying an average can change the meaning of the data.
    Arithmetic average / mean – sum of quantities / number of quantities
    Median – the middle point of the data which separates the data, the midpoint when data is sorted
    Mode – the data point that occurs the most in a given set of data
  • This chapter is about how the sample data is picked up in a way to prove the results
  • This little chapter is about errors in measurement. There are two measures for measuring error – Probable Error and Standard Error.
  • How to manipulate a graph so that it shows an inflated / deflated picture
  • This one is an interesting trick. The trick here is use some sort of symbol – a money bag, a factory symbol things like that on the graph. So, when measuring the growth of, say the factory, increase the size of the factory image – and increase it across all the dimensions. Given that the reader is seeing this on a graph, the other dimensions are forgotten and the large money bag gives the impression that there is a much larger difference than 1:3 !
  • The semi-attached figure: And what is the idea – very simple. If you can’t prove what you want to prove, prove something else and demonstrate that they both are the same!
  • Post-hoc analysis. The cause and effect problem. You have the effect and then you go around shopping for a cause that you want to portray.
  • How to statisticulate: to manipulate readers by using statistics.
  • How to talk back to a statistic.

there’s bunches more, but i’ve got to tend to my cooking upstairs, so i’m going to close.

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About jeanne

artist, grandma, alien

Posted on December 26, 2011, in game, quantum, research. Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.

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